online prescription solutions
online discount medstore
pills online
buy lorazepam without prescription
xanax for sale
buy xanax without prescription
buy ambien without prescription
ambien for sale
buy modafinil without prescription
buy phentermine without prescription
modafinil for sale
phentermine for sale
lorazepam for sale
buy lexotan without prescription
bromazepam for sale
xenical for sale
buy stilnox without prescription
valium for sale
buy prosom without prescription
buy mefenorex without prescription
buy sildenafil citrate without prescription
buy adipex-p without prescription
librium for sale
buy restoril without prescription
buy halazepam without prescription
cephalexin for sale
buy zoloft without prescription
buy renova without prescription
renova for sale
terbinafine for sale
dalmane for sale
buy lormetazepam without prescription
nobrium for sale
buy klonopin without prescription
priligy dapoxetine for sale
buy prednisone without prescription
buy aleram without prescription
buy flomax without prescription
imovane for sale
adipex-p for sale
buy niravam without prescription
seroquel for sale
carisoprodol for sale
buy deltasone without prescription
buy diazepam without prescription
zopiclone for sale
buy imitrex without prescription
testosterone anadoil for sale
buy provigil without prescription
sonata for sale
nimetazepam for sale
buy temazepam without prescription
buy xenical without prescription
buy famvir without prescription
buy seroquel without prescription
rivotril for sale
acyclovir for sale
loprazolam for sale
buy nimetazepam without prescription
buy prozac without prescription
mogadon for sale
viagra for sale
buy valium without prescription
lamisil for sale
camazepam for sale
zithromax for sale
buy clobazam without prescription
buy diflucan without prescription
modalert for sale
diflucan for sale
buy alertec without prescription
buy zyban without prescription
buy serax without prescription
buy medazepam without prescription
buy imovane without prescription
mefenorex for sale
lormetazepam for sale
prednisone for sale
ativan for sale
buy alprazolam without prescription
buy camazepam without prescription
buy nobrium without prescription
mazindol for sale
buy mazindol without prescription
buy mogadon without prescription
buy terbinafine without prescription
diazepam for sale
buy topamax without prescription
cialis for sale
buy tafil-xanor without prescription
buy librium without prescription
buy zithromax without prescription
retin-a for sale
buy lunesta without prescription
serax for sale
restoril for sale
stilnox for sale
lamotrigine for sale

Necessity is the Mother, but Protection May Not Be the Father of Invention

by A. Bryan Endres & Carly E. Giffin

Abstract

Standard innovation theory assumes that intellectual property protection is a prerequisite to the development of technological advances.  A strong intellectual property system, composed of both laws that establish intellectual property protection and a judicial or other adjudicative system to enforce the property right, has been considered necessary to stimulate innovation for the benefit of society.  While not directly challenging this traditionally held belief, the authors used empirical data to test the assumption in the context of agriculture.  This paper analyzed twenty years of agricultural production data from Argentina, Brazil, China, India, and the United States and their accompanying intellectual property systems.  The authors sought to determine whether strong intellectual property laws, along with vigorous enforcement, do in fact correlate with greater innovation.  The results of this empirical study were mixed.  The authors’ analysis identified a statistically significant relationship between research and development (R & D) expenditures — considered a proxy for innovation — and hectares planted, but found no significant relationship between R & D expenditures and crop yield.  Subsequent analysis of applications for intellectual property protection and crop production yielded similarly mixed results.  Thus, the analysis reveals that, based on some measures, innovation manages to thrive despite the absence of strong intellectual property regimes in some developing countries.

About the Authors

A. Bryan Endres is an Associate Professor of Agricultural Law, University of Illinois. Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, and Director, University of Illinois European Union Center.  This research was supported in part by the National Soybean Research Laboratory and USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch Project No. ILLU-470-309.  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations do not reflect the view of the funding agencies.  The authors extend their appreciation for the valued research assistance of Muriel Lightborne, Kuang-Cheng Chang, Renata Oliveria, Martin Slavens, Dan Loshe and Devon Curtis.  Also special thanks to Mojun Liu and Scott Main for assistance with statistical analysis.

Carly E. Giffin is a Postdoctoral Legal Research Associate, University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics.  J.D. University of Illinois; B.A. Haverford College.  Contact: carly.giffin@gmail.com.

Important Note

For proper legal citation of this document, please cite to the following URL: http://www.stlr.org/cite.cgi?volume=14&article=4. The URL that currently appears in your browser’s location toolbar is incorrect. For more information on Bluebook citation of internet sources, click here.

View in PDF

 

blog comments powered by Disqus